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Title VII CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES

  Chapter 71back to chapter 71

  71.015.  Objections to annexation, satisfaction of objections prior to annexation, procedure — certain cities, elections for annexation, procedure — cause of action for deannexation authorized. — 1.  Should any city, town, or village, not located in any county of the first classification which has adopted a constitutional charter for its own local government, seek to annex an area to which objection is made, the following shall be satisfied:

  (1)  Before the governing body of any city, town, or village has adopted a resolution to annex any unincorporated area of land, such city, town, or village shall first as a condition precedent determine that:

  (a)  The land to be annexed is contiguous to the existing city, town, or village limits and that the length of the contiguous boundary common to the existing city, town, or village limit and the proposed area to be annexed is at least fifteen percent of the length of the perimeter of the area proposed for annexation; or

  (b)  The land to be annexed would be contiguous and compact to the existing city, town, or village limits but for an intervening state highway or interstate highway as defined in section 304.001, or railroad right-of-way, and the shared border of the land to be annexed and existing city, town, or village composes at least fifteen percent of the total perimeter of the land to be annexed.  For purposes of calculating the length of such border under this paragraph, the border between the land to be annexed and the existing city, town, or village shall be deemed to be:

  a.  If an intervening state highway or interstate highway, the centerline; or

  b.  If a railroad right-of-way, the midpoint between the outermost rails if there are rails or the best estimate of the middle of the right-of-way if there are no rails;

  (2)  The governing body of any city, town, or village shall propose an ordinance setting forth the following:

  (a)  The area to be annexed and affirmatively stating that the boundaries comply with the condition precedent referred to in subdivision (1) above;

  (b)  That such annexation is reasonable and necessary to the proper development of the city, town, or village;

  (c)  That the city has developed a plan of intent to provide services to the area proposed for annexation;

  (d)  That a public hearing shall be held prior to the adoption of the ordinance;

  (e)  When the annexation is proposed to be effective, the effective date being up to thirty-six months from the date of any election held in conjunction thereto;

  (3)  The city, town, or village shall fix a date for a public hearing on the ordinance and make a good faith effort to notify all fee owners of record within the area proposed to be annexed by certified mail, not less than thirty nor more than sixty days before the hearing, and notify all residents of the area by publication of notice in a newspaper of general circulation qualified to publish legal matters in the county or counties where the proposed area is located, at least once a week for three consecutive weeks prior to the hearing, with at least one such notice being not more than twenty days and not less than ten days before the hearing;

  (4)  At the hearing referred to in subdivision (3), the city, town, or village shall present the plan of intent and evidence in support thereof to include:

  (a)  A list of major services presently provided by the city, town, or village including, but not limited to, police and fire protection, water and sewer systems, street maintenance, parks and recreation, and refuse collection;

  (b)  A proposed time schedule whereby the city, town, or village plans to provide such services to the residents of the proposed area to be annexed within three years from the date the annexation is to become effective;

  (c)  The level at which the city, town, or village assesses property and the rate at which it taxes that property;

  (d)  How the city, town, or village proposes to zone the area to be annexed;

  (e)  When the proposed annexation shall become effective;

  (5)  Following the hearing, and either before or after the election held in subdivision (6) of this subsection, should the governing body of the city, town, or village vote favorably by ordinance to annex the area, the governing body of the city, town or village shall file an action in the circuit court of the county in which such unincorporated area is situated, under the provisions of chapter 527, praying for a declaratory judgment authorizing such annexation.  The petition in such action shall state facts showing:

  (a)  The area to be annexed and its conformity with the condition precedent referred to in subdivision (1) of this subsection;

  (b)  That such annexation is reasonable and necessary to the proper development of the city, town, or village; and

  (c)  The ability of the city, town, or village to furnish normal municipal services of the city, town, or village to the unincorporated area within a reasonable time not to exceed three years after the annexation is to become effective.  Such action shall be a class action against the inhabitants of such unincorporated area under the provisions of section 507.070;

  (6)  Except as provided in subsection 3 of this section, if the court authorizes the city, town, or village to make an annexation, the legislative body of such city, town, or village shall not have the power to extend the limits of the city, town, or village by such annexation until an election is held at which the proposition for annexation is approved by a majority of the total votes cast in the city, town, or village and by a separate majority of the total votes cast in the unincorporated territory sought to be annexed.  However, should less than a majority of the total votes cast in the area proposed to be annexed vote in favor of the proposal, but at least a majority of the total votes cast in the city, town, or village vote in favor of the proposal, then the proposal shall again be voted upon in not more than one hundred twenty days by both the registered voters of the city, town, or village and the registered voters of the area proposed to be annexed.  If at least two-thirds of the qualified electors voting thereon are in favor of the annexation, then the city, town, or village may proceed to annex the territory.  If the proposal fails to receive the necessary majority, no part of the area sought to be annexed may be the subject of another proposal to annex for a period of two years from the date of the election, except that, during the two-year period, the owners of all fee interests of record in the area or any portion of the area may petition the city, town, or village for the annexation of the land owned by them pursuant to the procedures in section 71.012.  The elections shall if authorized be held, except as herein otherwise provided, in accordance with the general state law governing special elections, and the entire cost of the election or elections shall be paid by the city, town, or village proposing to annex the territory;

  (7)  Failure to comply in providing services to the said area or to zone in compliance with the plan of intent within three years after the effective date of the annexation, unless compliance is made unreasonable by an act of God, shall give rise to a cause of action for deannexation which may be filed in the circuit court by any resident of the area who was residing in the area at the time the annexation became effective;

  (8)  No city, town, or village which has filed an action under this section as this section read prior to May 13, 1980, which action is part of an annexation proceeding pending on May 13, 1980, shall be required to comply with subdivision (5) of this subsection in regard to such annexation proceeding;

  (9)  If the area proposed for annexation includes a public road or highway but does not include all of the land adjoining such road or highway, then such fee owners of record, of the lands adjoining said highway shall be permitted to intervene in the declaratory judgment action described in subdivision (5) of this subsection.

  2.  Notwithstanding any provision of subsection 1 of this section, for any annexation by any city with a population of three hundred fifty thousand or more inhabitants which is located in more than one county that becomes effective after August 28, 1994, if such city has not provided water and sewer service to such annexed area within three years of the effective date of the annexation, a cause of action shall lie for deannexation, unless the failure to provide such water and sewer service to the annexed area is made unreasonable by an act of God.  The cause of action for deannexation may be filed in the circuit court by any resident of the annexed area who is presently residing in the area at the time of the filing of the suit and was a resident of the annexed area at the time the annexation became effective.  If the suit for deannexation is successful, the city shall be liable for all court costs and attorney fees.

  3.  Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (6) of subsection 1 of this section, all cities, towns, and villages located in any county of the first classification with a charter form of government with a population of two hundred thousand or more inhabitants which adjoins a county with a population of nine hundred thousand or more inhabitants shall comply with the provisions of this subsection.  If the court authorizes any city, town, or village subject to this subsection to make an annexation, the legislative body of such city, town or village shall not have the power to extend the limits of such city, town, or village by such annexation until an election is held at which the proposition for annexation is approved by a majority of the total votes cast in such city, town, or village and by a separate majority of the total votes cast in the unincorporated territory sought to be annexed; except that:

  (1)  In the case of a proposed annexation in any area which is contiguous to the existing city, town or village and which is within an area designated as flood plain by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and which is inhabited by no more than thirty registered voters and for which a final declaratory judgment has been granted prior to January 1, 1993, approving such annexation and where notarized affidavits expressing approval of the proposed annexation are obtained from a majority of the registered voters residing in the area to be annexed, the area may be annexed by an ordinance duly enacted by the governing body and no elections shall be required; and

  (2)  In the case of a proposed annexation of unincorporated territory in which no qualified electors reside, if at least a majority of the qualified electors voting on the proposition are in favor of the annexation, the city, town or village may proceed to annex the territory and no subsequent election shall be required.

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If the proposal fails to receive the necessary separate majorities, no part of the area sought to be annexed may be the subject of any other proposal to annex for a period of two years from the date of such election, except that, during the two-year period, the owners of all fee interests of record in the area or any portion of the area may petition the city, town, or village for the annexation of the land owned by them pursuant to the procedures in section 71.012 or 71.014.  The election shall, if authorized, be held, except as otherwise provided in this section, in accordance with the general state laws governing special elections, and the entire cost of the election or elections shall be paid by the city, town, or village proposing to annex the territory.  Failure of the city, town or village to comply in providing services to the area or to zone in compliance with the plan of intent within three years after the effective date of the annexation, unless compliance is made unreasonable by an act of God, shall give rise to a cause of action for deannexation which may be filed in the circuit court not later than four years after the effective date of the annexation by any resident of the area who was residing in such area at the time the annexation became effective or by any nonresident owner of real property in such area.

  4.  Except for a cause of action for deannexation under subdivision (2) of subsection 3 of this section, any action of any kind seeking to deannex from any city, town, or village any area annexed under this section, or seeking in any way to reverse, invalidate, set aside, or otherwise challenge such annexation or oust such city, town, or village from jurisdiction over such annexed area shall be brought within five years of the date of the adoption of the annexation ordinance.

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(L. 1953 p. 309 § 1, A.L. 1980 H.B. 1110, A.L. 1986 H.B. 1261, A.L. 1990 H.B. 1536, A.L. 1992 S.B. 571, A.L. 1993 H.B. 566, A.L. 1994 S.B. 700 merged with S.B. 749, A.L. 1996 H.B. 1237, A.L. 1999 S.B. 160 & 82, A.L. 2013 S.B. 58, A.L. 2018 S.B. 881)

(2005) First valid step toward annexation is proposal of an ordinance to annex.  City of St. Joseph v. Village of Country Club, 163 S.W.3d 905 (Mo.banc).


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71.015 8/28/2018
71.015 8/28/2013 8/28/2018

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