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Effective 06 Dec 2018, see footnote bottom

  *III Section 3.  State demographer established and selected — election of representatives — legislative districts established — house apportionment commission. — (a)  There is hereby established the post of "Nonpartisan State Demographer".  The nonpartisan state demographer shall acquire appropriate information to develop procedures in preparation for drawing legislative redistricting maps on the basis of each federal census for presentation to the house apportionment commission and the senatorial apportionment commission.

  (b)  The nonpartisan state demographer shall be selected through the following process.  First, state residents may apply for selection to the state auditor using an application developed by the state auditor to determine an applicant's qualifications and expertise relevant to the position.  Second, the state auditor shall deliver to the majority leader and minority leader of the senate a list of at least three applicants with sufficient expertise and qualifications, as determined by the state auditor, to perform the duties of the nonpartisan state demographer.  Third, if the majority leader and minority leader of the senate together agree that a specific applicant should be selected to be the nonpartisan state demographer, that applicant shall be selected and the selection process shall cease.  Fourth, if the majority leader and minority leader of the senate cannot together agree on an applicant, they may each remove a number of applicants on the state auditor's list equal to one-third of the total number of applicants on that list, rounded down to the next integer, and the state auditor shall then conduct a random lottery of the applicants remaining after removal to select the nonpartisan state demographer.  The state auditor shall prescribe a time frame and deadlines for this application and selection process that both encourages numerous qualified applicants and avoids delay in selection.  The nonpartisan state demographer shall serve a term of five years and may be reappointed.  To be eligible for the nonpartisan state demographer position, an individual shall not have served in a partisan, elected position for four years prior to the appointment.  The nonpartisan state demographer shall be disqualified from holding office as a member of the general assembly for four years following the date of the presentation of his or her most recent legislative redistricting map to the house apportionment commission or the senatorial apportionment commission.

  (c)  The house of representatives shall consist of one hundred sixty-three members elected at each general election and apportioned as provided in this section.

  (1)  Within ten days after the population of this state is reported to the President for each decennial census of the United States or, in the event that a reapportionment has been invalidated by a court of competent jurisdiction, within ten days after such a ruling has been made, the nonpartisan state demographer shall begin the preparation of legislative districting plans and maps using the following methods, listed in order of priority:

  a.  Districts shall be established on the basis of total population.  Legislative districts shall each have a total population as nearly equal as practicable to the ideal population for such districts, determined by dividing the number of districts to be established into the total population of the state reported in the federal decennial census;

  b.  Districts shall be established in a manner so as to comply with all requirements of the United States Constitution and applicable federal laws, including, but not limited to, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (as amended).  Notwithstanding any other provision of this Article, districts shall not be drawn with the intent or result of denying or abridging the equal opportunity of racial or language minorities to participate in the political process or diminishing their ability to elect representatives of their choice, whether by themselves or by voting in concert with other persons.

  Districts shall be designed in a manner that achieves both partisan fairness and, secondarily, competitiveness.  "Partisan fairness" means that parties shall be able to translate their popular support into legislative representation with approximately equal efficiency.  "Competitiveness" means that parties' legislative representation shall be substantially and similarly responsive to shifts in the electorate's preferences.

  To this end, the nonpartisan state demographer shall calculate the average electoral performance of the two parties receiving the most votes in the three preceding elections for governor, for United States Senate, and for President of the United States.  This index shall be defined as the total votes received by each party in the three preceding elections for governor, for United States Senate, and for President of the United States, divided by the total votes cast for both parties in these elections.  Using this index, the nonpartisan state demographer shall calculate the total number of wasted votes for each party, summing across all of the districts in the plan.  "Wasted votes" are votes cast for a losing candidate or for a winning candidate in excess of the fifty percent threshold needed for victory.  In any plan of apportionment and map of the proposed districts submitted to the respective apportionment commission, the nonpartisan state demographer shall ensure the difference between the two parties' total wasted votes, divided by the total votes cast for the two parties, is as close to zero as practicable.

  To promote competitiveness, the nonpartisan state demographer shall use the electoral performance index to simulate elections in which the hypothetical statewide vote shifts by one percent, two percent, three percent, four percent, and five percent in favor of each party.  The vote in each individual district shall be assumed to shift by the same amount as the statewide vote.  The nonpartisan state demographer shall ensure that, in each of these simulated elections, the difference between the two parties' total wasted votes, divided by the total votes cast for the two parties, is as close to zero as practicable;

  c.  Subject to the requirements of paragraphs a. and b. of this subdivision, districts shall be composed of contiguous territory.  Areas which meet only at the points of adjoining corners are not contiguous;

  d.  To the extent consistent with paragraphs a. to c. of this subdivision, district boundaries shall coincide with the boundaries of political subdivisions of the state.  The number of counties and cities divided among more than one district shall be as small as possible.  When there is a choice between dividing local political subdivisions, the more populous subdivisions shall be divided before the less populous, but this preference shall not apply to a legislative district boundary drawn along a county line which passes through a city that lies in more than one county;

  e.  Preference shall be that districts are compact in form, but the standards established by paragraphs a. to d. of this subdivision take precedence over compactness where a conflict arises between compactness and these standards.  In general, compact districts are those which are square, rectangular, or hexagonal in shape to the extent permitted by natural or political boundaries.

  (2)  Within sixty days after the population of this state is reported to the President for each decennial census of the United States or, in the event that a reapportionment has been invalidated by a court of competent jurisdiction, within sixty days that such a ruling has been made, the congressional district committee of each of the two parties casting the highest vote for governor at the last preceding election shall meet and the members of the committee shall nominate, by a majority vote of the members of the committee present, provided that a majority of the elected members is present, two members of their party, residents in that district, as nominees for reapportionment commissioners.  Neither party shall select more than one nominee from any one state legislative district.  The congressional committees shall each submit to the governor their list of elected nominees.  Within thirty days the governor shall appoint a commission consisting of one name from each list to reapportion the state into one hundred and sixty-three representative districts and to establish the numbers and boundaries of said districts.

  If any of the congressional committees fails to submit a list within such time the governor shall appoint a member of his own choice from that district and from the political party of the committee failing to make the appointment.

  Members of the commission shall be disqualified from holding office as members of the general assembly for four years following the date of the filing by the commission of its final statement of apportionment.

  For the purposes of this Article, the term congressional district committee or congressional district refers to the congressional district committee or the congressional district from which a congressman was last elected, or, in the event members of congress from this state have been elected at large, the term congressional district committee refers to those persons who last served as the congressional district committee for those districts from which congressmen were last elected, and the term congressional district refers to those districts from which congressmen were last elected.  Any action pursuant to this section by the congressional district committee shall take place only at duly called meetings, shall be recorded in their official minutes and only members present in person shall be permitted to vote.

  (3)  Within six months after the population of this state is reported to the President for each decennial census of the United States or, in the event that a reapportionment has been invalidated by a court of competent jurisdiction, within six months after such a ruling has been made, the nonpartisan state demographer shall make public and file with the secretary of state and with the house apportionment commission a tentative plan of apportionment and map of the proposed districts, as well as all demographic and partisan data used in the creation of the plan and map.

  The commissioners so selected shall, within ten days of receiving the tentative plan of apportionment and map of the proposed districts, meet in the capitol building and proceed to organize by electing from their number a chairman, vice chairman and secretary.  The commission shall adopt an agenda establishing at least three hearing dates on which hearings open to the public shall be held to hear objections or testimony from interested persons.  A copy of the agenda shall be filed with the clerk of the house of representatives within twenty-four hours after its adoption.  Executive meetings may be scheduled and held as often as the commission deems advisable.

  The commission may make changes to the tentative plan of apportionment and map of the proposed districts received from the nonpartisan state demographer provided that such changes are consistent with this section and approved by a vote of at least seven-tenths of the commissioners.  If no changes are made or approved as provided for in this subsection, the tentative plan of apportionment and map of proposed districts shall become final.  Not later than two months of receiving the tentative plan of apportionment and map of the proposed districts, the commission shall file with the secretary of state a final statement of the numbers and the boundaries of the districts together with a map of the districts.

  Each member of the commission shall receive as compensation fifteen dollars a day for each day the commission is in session but not more than one thousand dollars, and, in addition, shall be reimbursed for his actual and necessary expenses incurred while serving as a member of the commission.

  No reapportionment shall be subject to the referendum.

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Source: Const. of 1945 (Amended January 14, 1966) (Amended November 2, 1982) (Amended November 6, 2018)

*Transferred 2018; formerly Article III, § 2.  No continuity with previous Article III, § 3, repealed November 2, 1982, L. 1982 SJR 39, § 1 2nd Reg. Sess.

CROSS REFERENCE:

Voter qualifications, RSMo 115.133


< end of effective 06 Dec 2018 >

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III 3 12/6/2018
III 3 11/2/1982 11/2/1982

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