☰ Revisor of Missouri

Title XXVI TRADE AND COMMERCE

Chapter 400

Effective - 28 Aug 1992 bottom

  400.4-402.  Bank's liability to customer for wrongful dishonor — time of determining insufficiency of account. — (a)  Except as otherwise provided in this Article, a payor bank wrongfully dishonors an item if it dishonors an item that is properly payable, but a bank may dishonor an item that would create an overdraft unless it has agreed to pay the overdraft.

  (b)  A payor bank is liable to its customer for damages proximately caused by the wrongful dishonor of an item.  Liability is limited to actual damages proved and may include damages for an arrest or prosecution of the customer or other consequential damages.  Whether any consequential damages are proximately caused by the wrongful dishonor is a question of fact to be determined in each case.

  (c)  A payor bank's determination of the customer's account balance on which a decision to dishonor for insufficiency of available funds is based may be made at any time between the time the item is received by the payor bank and the time that the payor bank returns the item or gives notice in lieu of return, and no more than one determination need be made.  If, at the election of the payor bank, a subsequent balance determination is made for the purpose of reevaluating the bank's decision to dishonor the item, the account balance at that time is determinative of whether a dishonor for insufficiency of available funds is wrongful.

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(L. 1963 p. 503 § 4-402, A.L. 1992 S.B. 448)

(1976) Held, refusal of a bank officer to countersign a check without cause constitutes "wrongful dishonor" but punitive damages will not be allowed without proof of an independent tort.  Wallick v. First State Bank of Farmington (A.), 532 S.W.2d 520.


---- end of effective   28 Aug 1992 ----

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